How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?

Does rock varnish accurately record ancient desert wetness? Yes, desert varnish rock varnish may be an accurate indicator of ancient desert wetness. No, rock varnish does not accurately record ancient desert wetness because it cannot be dated effectively and its mineral composition cannot exclusively be attributed to climate change. The subject of desert varnish, or rock varnish, as we shall see, carries with it a controversy concerning the relative levels of wetness that once existed in what are today desert environments. But this particular topic also illustrates several persistent themes in the earth sciences as well. Among these are the long periods of time usually required to bring about any noticeable change in geologic features that is, aside from dramatic instances of tectonic activity, such as volcanism. There is also the matter of the gradualism that characterizes the transport of solid-earth material from one place to another, and its accretion in one place. Also interesting, from the perspective of the geologic sciences as a whole, is the combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes, discussed in the essays that follow, which bring about the “varnishing” of rocks. Large outcroppings of rock do not tend to be all of one color, even if the rock itself is of the same mineral makeup.

RADIOACTIVE AGE ESTIMATION METHODS—Do they prove the Earth is billions of years old?

Julian visits many of New Zealand’s wild places with geoscientists studying rocks, glaciers, volcanoes and fossils Search This Blog Tuesday, 24 September Beryllium dating of moraines around Lake Ohau Lake Ohau is one of several very large lakes in the Southern Alps that fill valleys once carved out by huge glaciers during the Ice Age. As the ice retreated, it left spectacular and classic landforms in its wake, including concentric lines of moraines, erratic boulders, ‘U’ shaped valleys and extensive outwash plains.

The rapid tectonic uplift of the Southern Alps, and extreme climatic conditions, have created the landscape we see today.

The element beryllium is a grey metal that is stronger than steel and lighter than aluminum. Its physical properties of great strength-to-weight, high melting point, excellent thermal stability and conductivity, reflectivity, and transparency to X-rays make it an essential material in the aerospace, telecommunications, information technology, defense, medical, and nuclear industries.

This is very possible, and even likely. It is only an assumption that integral or adjacent lead could only be an end-product. In addition, there is “common lead, “which has no radioactive parent lead This could easily be mixed into the sample and would seriously affect the dating of that sample. Faul, an authority in the field, recognized it also: When the earth’s crust was formed, the primordial lead was frozen into rocks that also contained uranium and thorium in various ratios to lead.

When a uranium sample is tested for dating purposes, it is assumed that the entire quantity of lead in it is “daughter-product lead” that is, the end-product of the decayed uranium. The specimen is not carefully and thoroughly checked for possible “common lead” content, because it is such a time-consuming task. Yet it is that very uranium-lead ratio which is used to date the sample!

The same problem applies to thorium samples.

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It is a soft metal and is usually alloyed to give it more strength. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is unaffected by air and most reagents. Gold is readily available commercially and its price changes day by day and is one of the most widely tracked commercial prices.

Dating geological events with beryllium Using a technique known as cosmogenic nuclide dating, scientists can determine how long rocks have been exposed to the air by measuring their levels of.

April 27, Yes, the decay half-life of a radioactive material can be changed. Radioactive decay happens when an unstable atomic nucleus spontaneously changes to a lower-energy state and spits out a bit of radiation. This process changes the atom to a different element or a different isotope. Since radioactive decay is a spontaneous event, you may think that the half-life of the decay process is completely fixed and cannot be altered by outside influences.

However, this statement is not completely true. Public Domain Image, source: First of all, it is worth pointing out that the time when an individual radioactive atom decays is completely random.


Earth is constantly bombarded with primary cosmic rays , high energy charged particles — mostly protons and alpha particles. These particles interact with atoms in atmospheric gases, producing a cascade of secondary particles that may in turn interact and reduce their energies in many reactions as they pass through the atmosphere. By the time the cosmic ray cascade reaches the surface of Earth it is primarily composed of neutrons.

Shortly after the Big Bang, radioactive atoms of the type beryllium-7, among others, came into being.

Tritium is a radioisotope of concern in nuclear reactor waste streams. Isotopes and nucleosynthesis Main article: Isotopes of beryllium Both stable and unstable isotopes of beryllium are created in stars, but the radioisotopes do not last long. It is believed that most of the stable beryllium in the universe was originally created in the interstellar medium when cosmic rays induced fission in heavier elements found in interstellar gas and dust. Plot showing variations in solar activity, including variation in sunspot number red and 10Be concentration blue.

Note that the beryllium scale is inverted, so increases on this scale indicate lower 10Be levels Radioactive cosmogenic 10Be is produced in the atmosphere of the Earth by the cosmic ray spallation of oxygen. Thus, 10Be and its daughter products are used to examine natural soil erosion , soil formation and the development of lateritic soils , and as a proxy for measurement of the variations in solar activity and the age of ice cores.

This is one of the indicators of past activity at nuclear weapon test sites. The British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle first showed that the energy levels of 8Be and 12C allow carbon production by the so-called triple-alpha process in helium-fueled stars where more nucleosynthesis time is available. This process allows carbon to be produced in stars, but not in the Big Bang.

Star-created carbon the basis of carbon-based life is thus a component in the elements in the gas and dust ejected by AGB stars and supernovae see also Big Bang nucleosynthesis , as well as the creation of all other elements with atomic numbers larger than that of carbon. Therefore, when 7Be decays by L- electron capture , it does so by taking electrons from its atomic orbitals that may be participating in bonding.

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Dr Andrew Swales Estuaries in New Zealand are experiencing sedimentation at higher rates than before humans arrived here: We need to better understand what has been happening so that we can predict the future and fight these losses. The issue Estuaries follow similar evolutionary pathways:

Beryllium 7 dating build your own dating site 38 Comments Adapted from Geyh and Schleicher, Over the past three decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the volume and scope of research defining the sources and fate of anthropogenic substances and the environmental changes that they may important aspect of the research is the determination of the rate at which these changes are .

Using cosmogenic nuclides in glacial geology Sampling strategies cosmogenic nuclide dating Difficulties in cosmogenic nuclide dating Calculating an exposure age Further Reading References Comments How can we date rocks? Geologists taking rock samples in Antarctica for cosmogenic nuclide dating. They use a hammer and chisel to sample the upper few centimetres of the rock. Cosmogenic nuclide dating can be used to determine rates of ice-sheet thinning and recession, the ages of moraines, and the age of glacially eroded bedrock surfaces.

It is an excellent way of directly dating glaciated regions. It is particularly useful in Antarctica[1], because of a number of factors[2]: The lack of terrestrial marine organisms makes radiocarbon dating difficult; High winds make burial by snow less likely; Burial and cover by vegetation is unlikely. Cosmogenic nuclide dating is effective over short to long timescales 1, , , years , depending on which isotope you are dating.

Different isotopes are used for different lengths of times.

Does rock varnish accurately record ancient desert wetness?

See this page in: Russian How old is planet Earth? There are enormous differences of opinion. The most common view is that Earth is approximately 4. The lowest age defended on a scientific basis is in the 6 to 10 thousand year range. Theoretically, Creationism remains workable within a wide range of age estimates.

Diatomics: N2 O2 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 H2 Start with element #7 Form a figure 7 There are 7 of them – include Hydrogen D. Writing Equations Two atoms of aluminum react with three units of aqueous copper(II) chloride to produce three atoms of copper and two units of aqueous aluminum chloride.

Explaining and how to calculate the relative atomic mass RAM or Ar of an element What is the relative atomic mass of an element? What scale is relative atomic mass based on? What is the formula to work out the relative atomic mass of an element? How to calculate relative atomic mass Introduction Every atom has its own unique relative atomic mass RAM based on a standard comparison or relative scale e. The relative atomic mass scale is now based on an isotope of carbon, namely, carbon , nuclide symbol , which is given the arbitrary value of The unit ‘amu’ is now being replaced by a lower case u, where u is the symbol for the unified atomic mass unit.

Since the relative atomic mass of an element is now based on the carbon isotope it can now be defined as Examples are shown in the Periodic Table diagram above. Just scan the periodic table above and examine the pairs of numbers. This has consequences for nuclear stability. At Advanced level, values of relative atomic masses may be quoted to one or two decimal places. Many atomic masses are known to an accuracy of four decimal places, but for some elements, isotopic composition varies depending on the mineralogical source, so four decimal places isn’t necessarily more accurate!

In using the symbol Ar for RAM, you should bear in mind that the letter A on its own usually means the mass number of a particular isotope and amu is the acronym shorthand for atomic mass units. However there are complications due to isotopes and so very accurate atomic masses are never whole integer numbers.

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